The Refare program is a private psychological treatment invented and realized for the Parental Alienation.
Its pioneers are Marco Pingitore (Psychologist-Psychotherapist) and Alessia Mirabelli (Psychologist).
Currently, the Refare Program is only available in the city of Cosenza (Italy).
The term “parental alienation” is referred to two meanings.
The legal meaning
it refers to art. 337-ter clause 1 of the Civil Code:
the child has the right to maintain a balanced and continuous relationship with each parent, receiving care, upbringing, education and moral assistance from both parents and keep important relationships with the forefathers and parents of each parental branch.
We might describe the Parental Alienation as a violation, from one of the parents, of the child’s right to maintain a balanced and continuous relationship with the other parent and keep important relationships with the forefathers and parents of each parental branch.
The psychological meaning
It is possible to observe the parental alienation only during legal actions due to a separation. It represents the impossibility to maintain a balanced and continuous relationship between the parent and the child mainly because of the other alienating parent’s behaviors. These behaviors tend to decrease in value the comprehension and decision skills and they cause a real refusal of the child towards the rejected parent who will have a more and more passive and marginal role. The psychological process of parental alienation determines in the victim child, in relation to his/her age and ability of discernment, a coarctation of his/her will. The parental alienation represents the negation of the child’s right to health, self-respect and self-determination.
Currently in Italy this type of cases are faced letting a wide space to confusion and uncertainty, starting from the judicial provisions.
Then, the total darkness. The following action is a real mystery: nobody knows what to do and who should be engaged and how.
An example: the supervised visitations. Their definition is vague and does not refer to a structured and well-defined intervention (what is the nature?).
The result, unfortunately, is producing, involuntarily and inexorably, disastrous solutions that cause further problems.
Excluding the rare exceptions, in Italy nobody knows what to do in cases of Parental Alienation.
Plus ça change plus c’est la meme chose.
Normally, the promotion of change (in terms of development and progression) is the deviation of the rule.
If the rule, in the last few years, has been accomplishing the same attempts making the same mistakes, our objective is trying to go towards the opposite direction, for example, establishing clear and defined preconditions for taking charge of these cases.
It is better to specify that the Refare does not represent a psychotherapic treatment, but a treatment program with the specific aim to recover the relationship between the child and the rejected parent. In the program, the potential psychopathologies of the child and/or the parent are not treated.